Content Validity in Assessment

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Content validity is an aspect of validity, a term that psychometricians use to refer to evidence that interpretations of test scores are supported.  For example, predictive validity provides evidence that a pre-employment test will predict job performance, tenure, and other important criteria.  Content validity, on the other hand, focuses on evidence that the content of the test covers what it should cover.

What is Content Validity?

Content validity refers to the extent to which a measurement instrument (e.g., a test, questionnaire, or survey) accurately and adequately measures the specific content or construct it is designed to assess. In simpler terms, it assesses whether the questions or items included in an assessment are relevant and representative of the subject matter or concept under investigation.

Example 1: You are working on a benchmark test for 5th grade mathematics in the USA.  You would likely want to ensure that all items align to the Common Core State Standards for the 5th grade mathematics curriculum.

Example 2: You are working on a certification exam for widgetmakers.  You should make sure that all items align to the publicly posted blueprint for this certification.  That, in turn, was not defined in willy-nilly – it should have been built on the results of a formal job task analysis study.

The Importance of Content Validity

Drives Accurate Measurement: Content validity helps in ensuring that the assessment tool is measuring what it’s intended to measure. This is critical for drawing meaningful conclusions and making informed decisions based on the results.content validity

Enhances Credibility: When your assessment has high content validity, it enhances the credibility and trustworthiness of your findings. It demonstrates that you’ve taken the time to design a valid instrument. This is often referred to as face validity – which is not a “real” type of validity that psychometricians consider, but refers to if someone off the street looks at the test and says “yeah, that looks like all the items are on widgetmaking.”

Reduces Bias: Using assessment items that are not content-valid can introduce bias and inaccuracies into your results. By maintaining content validity, you reduce the risk of skewed or unreliable data.

Improves Decision-Making: Organizations often rely on assessments to make important decisions, such as hiring employees, designing educational curricula, or evaluating the effectiveness of marketing campaigns. Content-valid assessments provide a solid foundation for making these decisions.

Legal Defensibility: In general, if you deliver a test to select employees, you need to show either content validity (e.g., test on Microsoft Excel for bookkeepers) or predictive validity (conscientiousness is a personality trait but probably related to success as a bookkeeper).  A similar notion applies to other types of tests.

How to Assess Content Validity

There are various methods to assess content validity, such as expert reviews, pilot testing, and statistical techniques. One common method is to gather a panel of experts in the subject matter and have them review the assessment items to ensure that they align with the content domain.  Of course, if all the items are written directly to the blueprints in the first place, and reviewed before they even become part of the pool of active items, a post-hoc review like that is not necessary.

There has been more recent research on the application of machine learning to evaluate content, including the add-on option to look for enemy items by evaluating the distance between the content of any given pair of items.

If the test is multidimensional, a statistical approach known as factor analysis can help, to see if the items actually load on the dimensions they should.


In summary, content validity is an essential aspect of assessment design that ensures the questions or items used in an assessment are appropriate, relevant, and representative of the construct being measured. It plays a significant role in enhancing the accuracy, credibility, and overall quality of your assessments. Whether you’re a student preparing for an exam, a researcher developing a survey, or a business professional creating a customer feedback form, understanding and prioritizing content validity will help you achieve more reliable and meaningful results. So, next time you’re tasked with creating or using an assessment tool, remember the importance of content validity and its impact on the quality of your data and decision-making processes.

However, it is not the only aspect of validity.  The documentation of validity is a complex process that is often ongoing.  You will also need data on statistical performance of the test (e.g., alpha reliability), evaluation bias (e.g., differential item functioning), possibly predictive validity, and more.  Therefore, it’s important to work with a psychometrician that can help you understand what is involved and ensure that the test meets both international standards and the reason that you are building the test in the first place!

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Nathan Thompson, PhD

Nathan Thompson earned his PhD in Psychometrics from the University of Minnesota, with a focus on computerized adaptive testing. His undergraduate degree was from Luther College with a triple major of Mathematics, Psychology, and Latin. He is primarily interested in the use of AI and software automation to augment and replace the work done by psychometricians, which has provided extensive experience in software design and programming. Dr. Thompson has published over 100 journal articles and conference presentations, but his favorite remains

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